NM-LEACH: A Novel Modified LEACH Protocol to Improve Performance in WSN

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Alaa Hussein Abdulaal
A. F. M. Shahen Shah
Al-Sakib Khan Pathan


Saving energy and improving the lifetime of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has remained as a key research challenge for some time. Low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH), a classical protocol is designed originally for the purpose of reducing and balancing the network’s energy consumption. However, as the distances between the cluster head (CH) and the member nodes are not taken into consideration, it results in the uneven distribution of the clusters and uneven consumption of the energy in the network. Choosing the CHs with no distinction is an issue as well. Based on the original algorithm, a novel modified LEACH (NM-LEACH) has been proposed, considering critical problems that exist in the network. NM-LEACH protocol is capable of reasonably solving the number of the CHs in each round and takes the energy as a factor of weight under consideration in selecting the CH. The proposed protocol enhances performance by extending the WSN lifecycle, which results in increasing the balance of the energy consumption in the network, and improving the efficiency of the network.

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How to Cite
Abdulaal, A. H., Shah, A. F. M. S., & Pathan, A.-S. K. (2022). NM-LEACH: A Novel Modified LEACH Protocol to Improve Performance in WSN. International Journal of Communication Networks and Information Security (IJCNIS), 14(1). https://doi.org/10.17762/ijcnis.v14i1.5127 (Original work published April 12, 2022)
Research Articles
Author Biographies

Alaa Hussein Abdulaal, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Istanbul Gelisim University, Turkey

Alaa Hussein Abdulaal obtained his B.Sc. degree in Electrical Engineering from Al-Mustansiriyah University, Iraq in 2017. He received his M. Sc. degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering from Istanbul Gelisim University, Turkey in 2021. His research areas include wireless communication, IoT, wireless sensor networks, biomedical engineering, etc.

A. F. M. Shahen Shah, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, Turkey

A. F. M. Shahen Shah (Senior Member, IEEE) received the B.Sc. degree in electronics and telecommunication engineering from Daffodil International University, Bangladesh, in 2009, the M.Sc. degree in information technology from the University of Dhaka, Bangladesh, in 2011, and the Ph.D. degree in electronics and communication engineering from Yildiz Technical University, Turkey, in 2020. He worked as an Assistant Professor with the Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Istanbul Gelisim University, Turkey, from 2020 to 2021. He also worked in industry for ten years, where he served as a higher management position. Since 2021, he has been working as an Assistant Professor with the Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Yildiz Technical University. He has authored a book. He has published a good number of research papers in international conferences and journals. His current research interests include wireless communication, artificial intelligence, 6G, blockchain, and cross-layer design, etc. He is a Life Member of the Institution of Engineers, Bangladesh (IEB).

Al-Sakib Khan Pathan, Independent University, Bangladesh

Al-Sakib Khan Pathan is currently an Adjunct Professor at Computer Science and Engineering department, Independent University, Bangladesh and PhD Co-supervisor (external) at Computer Sciences Department, University Ferhat Abbas Setif 1, Algeria. He received PhD degree in Computer Engineering in 2009 from Kyung Hee University, South Korea and B.Sc. degree in Computer Science and Information Technology from Islamic University of Technology (IUT), Bangladesh in 2003. In his academic career so far, he worked as a faculty member at the CSE Department of Southeast University, Bangladesh during 2015-2020, Computer Science department, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Malaysia during 2010-2015; at BRACU, Bangladesh during 2009-2010, and at NSU, Bangladesh during 2004-2005. He serves as a Guest Professor at the Department of Technical and Vocational Education, Islamic University of Technology, Bangladesh since 2018. He also worked as a Researcher at Networking Lab, Kyung Hee University, South Korea from September 2005 to August 2009 where he completed his MS leading to PhD. His research interests include wireless sensor networks, network security, cloud computing, and e-services technologies. Currently he is also working on some multidisciplinary issues. He is a recipient of several awards/best paper awards and has several notable publications in these areas. So far, he has delivered over 30 Keynotes and Invited speeches at various international conferences and events. He was named on the List of Top 2% Scientists of the World, 2019 by Stanford University, USA in 2020. He has served as a General Chair, Organizing Committee Member, and Technical Program Committee (TPC) member in numerous top-ranked international conferences/workshops like INFOCOM, GLOBECOM, ICC, LCN, GreenCom, AINA, WCNC, HPCS, ICA3PP, IWCMC, VTC, HPCC, SGIoT, etc. He was awarded the IEEE Outstanding Leadership Award for his role in IEEE GreenCom’13 conference and IEEE Outstanding Service Award in recognition for the service and contribution to the IEEE 21st IRI 2020 conference. He is currently serving as the Editor-in-Chief of International Journal of Computers and Applications, Taylor & Francis, UK, Editor of Ad Hoc and Sensor Wireless Networks, Old City Publishing, International Journal of Sensor Networks, Inderscience Publishers, and Malaysian Journal of Computer Science, Associate Editor of Connection Science, Taylor & Francis, UK, International Journal of Computational Science and Engineering, Inderscience, Area Editor of International Journal of Communication Networks and Information Security, Guest Editor of many special issues of top-ranked journals, and Editor/Author of 26 books. One of his books has been included twice in Intel Corporation’s Recommended Reading List for Developers, 2nd half 2013 and 1st half of 2014; 3 books were included in IEEE Communications Society’s (IEEE ComSoc) Best Readings in Communications and Information Systems Security, 2013, several other books were indexed with all the titles (chapters) in Elsevier’s acclaimed abstract and citation database, Scopus and in Web of Science (WoS), Book Citation Index, Clarivate Analytics, at least one has been approved as a textbook at NJCU, USA in 2020, one is among the Top Used resources on SpringerLink in 2020 for UN’s Sustainable Development Goal 7 (SDG7) - Affordable and Clean Energy and one book has been translated to simplified Chinese language from English version. Also, 2 of his journal papers and 1 conference paper were included under different categories in IEEE Communications Society's (IEEE ComSoc) Best Readings Topics on Communications and Information Systems Security, 2013. He also serves as a referee of many prestigious journals. He received some awards for his reviewing activities like: one of the most active reviewers of IAJIT several times; Elsevier Outstanding Reviewer for Computer Networks, Ad Hoc Networks, FGCS, and JNCA in multiple years. He is a Senior Member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), USA.