Reduction of secondary lobes in joint angle and delay estimation in angle of arrival localization to detect MAC address spoofing in wireless networks

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Sara Adel Abbas
Eman Mohamed El-Didamony


in this paper, we solve the problem of  secondary lobes that are due to noise that comes from constructive and destructive multipath interference that are resulted in received signal strength (RSS) variation over time. This is to develop a very efficient localization algorithm that uses a unique fingerprint angle of arrivals (AOAs), in a specified range, with associated time delays (TDs), in the surrounded sparsity design promoting multipath parameter (i.e:RSS). We solve this problem to detect physical identity spoofing of nodes in radio wireless networks, and localize adversaries and jammers of wireless networks. All radio waves are vulnerable to many types of attacks due to the ability to capture them and sniff or eavesdropping on them in the open space. Physical identity spoofing is used to launch many types of attacks against wireless networks like Denial of Service (DOS), Man-In-The-Middle and Session Hijacking and eavesdropping. Eavesdropping is a human-based social engineering attack. Active adversaries are able to jam and eavesdrop simultaneously, while passive adversaries can only eavesdrop on passed signals. In TCP/IP protocol for example, Media Access Card (MAC) Address is transferred in 802.11 frames. Detection process was carried out by analyzing electromagnetic radio waves that are used to transfer data, in the form of radio wave signals that are formed by the modulation process which mixes the electromagnetic wave, with another one of different frequency or amplitude to produce the signal with a specified pattern of frequency and amplitude. We depended on the angle of arrival of vectors and time delay across scattered areas in the surrounded space to solve the problem of co-location in detection and localization of jammers. We used Maximum Likelihood (ML) angle of arrival determination because ML approaches, known to their higher accuracy and enhanced resolution capabilities. And we assessed their computational complexity that was considered as the major drawback for designers to their implementation in practice.   Our solution was tested on a jammer that changed the signal strength of received signal at the receiver at an angle of arrival 30 degree. And we used scatterers density to determine the angle of arrival of the sender. The simulation has observed that the power of the received signal has changed from the range of angles 20 to 40 degrees. We used scatterers because they describe the density of the signal power, and also enhance the signal to noise ratio, that resulted from the multipath fading of the signal strength. And also overcoming the problem of secondary lobes that are due to signal propagation, while determining the angle of arrival of a signal sender. So, we developed a new passive technique to detect MAC address spoofing based on angle of arrival localization. And assessed the computation complexity of the localization technique through depending on a range angle to estimate the angle of arrival of the adversary within it. And we reduced number of secondary lobes, and their peaks, in the importance function, while determining the angle of arrival, and so increasing the accuracy of angle of arrival measurement. We compared our work to other techniques and find that our technique is better than these techniques.

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Abbas, S. A., & El-Didamony, E. M. (2022). Reduction of secondary lobes in joint angle and delay estimation in angle of arrival localization to detect MAC address spoofing in wireless networks. International Journal of Communication Networks and Information Security (IJCNIS), 12(1). (Original work published April 26, 2020)
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